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Save Lives with Solar

Healthy Futures are campaigning to help protect people from extreme temperatures whilst working towards a safe climate. Across Australia, we are calling on the federal government to fund rooftop solar on social housing.

The problem

Without adequate protection, heat-related illnesses kill thousands of Australians every year. Extreme heat can trigger heart attacks, kidney failure, strokes and increase the risk of dehydration and other health impacts. Older people, children, people with pre-existing health conditions and people unable to afford air conditioning are most vulnerable.

Many social housing dwellings are poor quality and prone to temperature extremes, which are too expensive for residents to remedy. The facts:

  • Roughly one-third of heat-related deaths can be attributed to climate change.
  • Many social housing dwellings are poor quality and prone to temperature extremes.
  • A 2023 survey of people on low incomes by the Australian Council of Social Services found that 94.5% avoided using air conditioning because it is too expensive.

The solution

Adequate installation of solar panels, renewable-powered reverse cycle air conditioning and other retrofits to improve energy efficiency and thermal performance. These measures will not only protect people from extreme temperatures and drive down costs of living; they will also mitigate climate change and its health impacts in the long term by reducing dependence on fossil fuel-based electricity.

What are we doing?

As healthcare workers and community members, our collective voices have an impact, and together we can request the Australian government protect people in social housing from the increasing health impacts of climate change. We’re asking the government to commit to:

  • Rooftop solar on at least 30% of Australian social housing by the end of 2026,
  • Access to affordable renewable electricity for social housing where rooftop solar is impractical, e.g. via power purchasing agreements and/or battery storage
  • Installation of reverse cycle air conditioning and implement other energy efficient retrofits to achieve safe temperatures in all social housing

What can you do?

  1. Please sign our open letter calling on the federal government for a budget commitment to install solar panels and air conditioning, and implement other retrofits to achieve safe temperatures in social housing.
  2. Help us build awareness and share our work with colleagues and friends.
  3. If you're part of an organisation that could support this campaign, please ask your organisation to email [email protected] and we will add your logo to the open letter.
  4. Share our campaign using our social media tiles.
  5. Join us for our next supporters meeting on February 21st to hear about our campaigns and connect with like-minded people. RSVP here.

Please get in touch with our campaigner Ursula at [email protected] if you'd like to be involved in another way.

Key organisational signatories:

 

   

        

  

           

 

     
        
  

    


 

 

 

 

250 signatures

To: the Hon Chris Bowen, Federal Minister for Climate Change & Energy

Cc: the Hon Jenny McAllister, Federal Assistant Minister for Climate Change & Energy

& the Hon Mark Butler, Federal Minister for Health & Aged Care

& the Hon Jim Chalmers, Federal Treasurer

& the Hon Julie Collins, Federal Minister for Housing

& the Hon Amanda Rishworth, Federal Minister for Families and Social Services

 

Dear Minister Bowen, 

As healthcare workers and community members, we request that the Australian government protect  people in social housing from the increasing health impacts of climate change by ensuring that their homes are kept at safe temperatures through building retrofits and affordable, renewable-powered air conditioning.

Heat-related illnesses kill thousands of Australians every year (1) and roughly one-third of these deaths can be attributed to climate change (2,3). Heatwaves increase the risk of dehydration, kidney failure, heart attacks and strokes. Older people, children, people with pre-existing health conditions and people unable to afford air conditioning are most vulnerable.

Currently, many social housing dwellings are poor quality and prone to temperature extremes (4-6). A 2023 survey of people on low incomes by the Australian Council of Social Services found that 94.5% avoided using air conditioning because it is too expensive (7). Solar panels can significantly reduce air conditioning costs, and while 30% of Australian homes now have rooftop solar, rooftop solar coverage on social housing in New South Wales, for example, is only 7% (8).

Energy efficiency retrofits and renewable-powered air conditioning will not only protect people from extreme temperatures and drive down costs of living; they will also mitigate climate change and its health impacts in the long term by reducing dependence on polluting fossil fuel-based electricity.

We therefore request that as part of the next federal budget you commit funding to:

  • Roll out rooftop solar on at least 30% of Australian social housing, to be completed by the end of 2026

  • Ensure access to affordable renewable electricity for social housing where rooftop solar is impractical, e.g. via power purchasing agreements and/or battery storage

  • Install reverse cycle air conditioning and implement other energy efficient retrofits to achieve safe temperatures in all social housing


Sincerely,


________


References:

  1. Zhao, Q, Guo, Y, Ye, T, Gasparrini, A, Tong, S, Overcenco, A, Urban, A, Schneider, A, Entezari, A, Vicedo-Cabrera, AM, Zanobetti, A, Analitis, A, Zeka, A, Tobias, A, Nunes, B, Alahmad, B, Armstrong, B, Forsberg, B, Pan, S, Íñiguez, C, Ameling, C, De La Cruz Valencia, C, Åström, C, Houthuijs, D, Van Dung, D, Royé, D, Indermitte, E, Lavigne, E, Mayvaneh, F, Acquaotta, F, de’Donato, F, Di Ruscio, F, Sera, F, Carrasco-Escobar, G, Kan, H, Orru, H, Kim, H, Holobaca, I, Kyselý, J, Madureira, J, Schwartz, J, Jaakkola, JJK, Katsouyanni, K, Hurtado Diaz, M, Ragettli, MS, Hashizume, M, Pascal, M, de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coélho, M, Valdés Ortega, N, Ryti, N, Scovronick, N, Michelozzi, P, Matus Correa, P, Goodman, P, Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, P, Abrutzky, R, Osorio, S, Rao, S, Fratianni, S, Ngoc Dang, T, Colistro, V, Huber, V, Lee, W, Seposo, X, Honda, Y, Leon Guo, Y, Bell, ML & Li, S 2021, ‘Global, regional, and national burden of mortality associated with non-optimal ambient temperatures from 2000 to 2019: a three-stage modelling study’, The Lancet, vol. 386, no. 9991, pp369-375, accessed 9 January 2024 at https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanplh/article/PIIS2542-5196(21)00081-4/fulltext

  2. Hannam, P 2021, June 1, ‘Climate change blamed for more than a third of heat-related deaths’, The Sydney Morning Herald, accessed 9 January 2024 at https://www.smh.com.au/environment/climate-change/climate-change-blamed-for-more-than-a-third-of-heat-related-deaths-20210531-p57wpy.html

  3. Vicedo-Cabrera, AM, Scovronick, N, Sera, F, Royé, D, Schneider, R, Tobias, A, Astrom, C, Guo, Y, Honda, Y, Hondula, DM, Abrutzky, R, Tong, S, de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, M, Nascimento Saldiva, PH, Lavigne, E, Matus Correa, P, Valdes Ortega, N, Kan, H, Osorio, S, Kyselý, J, Urban, A, Orru, H, Indermitte, E, Jaakkola, JJK, Ryti, N, Pascal, M, Schneider, A, Katsouyanni, K, Samoli, E, Mayvaneh, F, Entezari, A, Goodman, P, Zeka, A, Michelozzi, P, de’Donato, F, Hashizume, M, Alahmad, B, Hurtado Diaz, M, De La Cruz Valencia, C, Overcenco, A, Houthuijs, D, Ameling, C, Rao, S, Di Ruscio, F, Carrasco-Escobar, G, Seposo, X, Silva, S, Madureira, J, Holobaca, IH, Fratianni, S, Acquaotta, F, Kim, H, Lee, W, Iniguez, C, Forsberg, B, Ragettli, MS, Guo, YLL, Chen, BY, Li, S, Armstrong, B, Aleman, A, Zanobetti, A, Schwartz, J, Dang, TN, Dung, DV, Gillett, N, Haines, A, Mengel, M, Huber V & Gasparrini, A 2021, ‘The burden of heat-related mortality attributable to recent human-induced climate change’, Nature Climate Change, vol 11, pp492-500, accessed 9 January 2024 at  https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-021-01058-x

  4. Haddad, S, Paolini, R, Synnefa A, De Torres, L, Prasad, D & Santamouris M 2022, ‘Integrated assessment of the extreme climatic conditions, thermal performance, vulnerability, and well-being in low-income housing in the subtropical climate of Australia’, Energy and Buildings, vol. 272, 112349, accessed 9 January 2024 at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378778822005205?via%3Dihub

  5. Lander, J, Breth-Petersen, M, Moait, R, Forbes, C, Stephens, L & Dickson, M 2019. Extreme heat driven by the climate emergency: impacts on the health and wellbeing of public housing tenants in Mildura, Victoria, accessed 9 January 2024 at https://www.malleefamilycare.org.au/MFCSite/media/PDFDocuments/PublicHousing/2019/MalleeFamilyCare_PublicHousing_Report_2019.pdf

  6. Kimberly community legal services 2022, ‘Stuck in the heat: lived experiences of public housing tenants in the Kimberley’, accessed 9 January 2024 via https://www.shelterwa.org.au/stuck-in-the-heat/

  7. Australian Council of Social Services 2023, ‘ACOSS 2023 Heat Survey: how hotter days affect people on lowest incomes first, worst and and hardest’, accessed 9 January 2024 at https://www.acoss.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/Heat-Survey-Report_20230228.pdf

  8. NSW Department of Planning and Environment 2023, ‘NSW Land and Housing Corporation Environmental Sustainability Strategy 2024–2026’, accessed 9 January 2024 at  https://www.dpie.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/576436/environmental-sustainability-strategy-2024-2026.pdf
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Help Create Gas-Free Healthy Homes in NSW

Healthy Futures and NSW Doctors for the Environment (DEA) are working together to create healthier homes and a healthier climate, free from polluting fossil fuels. Burning gas is driving climate change and putting Australians' health at risk. In NSW, we are calling on the government to end new gas connections and support households to transition to healthier energy solutions. 

The problem

Gas is a significant source of energy for 7 out of 10 Australian homes, in NSW most often used for cooking and heating water. This is either through a reticulated network connection that provides misleadingly called natural gas or bottled gas. Around 5 million Australian households are connected to gas distribution networks. 

Beyond the significant climate risk that burning gas contributes to, families in NSW face unacceptable physical health risks from having gas in their homes. Gas cooktops and heaters produce indoor air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and benzene that can increase the risk of asthma, exacerbate chronic illnesses and even cause death. A child living with gas cooking in their home faces a similar risk of asthma to a child living with household cigarette smoke. Indoor gas has been estimated to be responsible for up to 12% of childhood asthma in Australia.

The solution

The good news is there are alternatives available right now that are cheaper, healthier and better for our climate. By transitioning to renewable-powered, energy-efficient appliances, households can reduce power bills, carbon emissions and toxic air pollution.

While many homeowners can implement these changes, the NSW Government must protect all households and create mechanisms to support low-income earners. 

What are we doing?

Just as health workers led campaigns against tobacco, they can also help transition to gas-free homes.

Doctors, nurses, psychologists and other health professionals are best placed to advocate for people’s physical and mental well-being. By having informed and active health workers who use compelling images and stories and are motivated to take part in public actions, we can erode the social licence of gas and reframe it as the health and climate threat it is.

We're calling on the NSW Government to ban new gas connections in homes and to provide assistance to low-income households to transition to electric alternatives.

Some of our campaign activities will include:

  • Educating, empowering and organising health workers to become spokespeople for gas-free homes
  • Researching the health impacts of gas in homes and advocating for renewable energy solutions
  • Collaborating with health, environmental and social organisations to build a coalition that advocates for Healthy Homes and a Healthy Climate
  • Lobbying the Government to bans new gas connections as soon as possible
  • Advocating for equity so that low-income earners do not bear the brunt of expensive and dangerous gas appliances and are supported to transition to healthier alternatives

What can you do?

  1. If you are based in NSW & work or study in health or community services, please sign our open letter here to the NSW Energy & Climate Change Minister
  2. If you're not in health, you can still help us build awareness and share our work with colleagues and friends in NSW
  3. If you are in Victoria please send an email to the Health Minister here asking for hospitals go all-electric and get off gas 

Please get in touch if you'd like to be involved.

 

Key organisational signatories:

 

     

 

     

    

  

 

      

    

      

     

   

  

  

     

       

 

    


200 signatures

To: the Hon. Penny Sharpe MP, NSW Minister for Climate Change, Energy and Environment 

 

Cc: the Hon. Chris Minns, MP, Premier of NSW 

the Hon. Ryan Park, MP, NSW Minister for Health

the Hon. Paul Scully, MP, NSW Minister for Planning and Public Spaces

the Hon. Rose Jackson, MP, NSW Minister for Housing, Homelessness, Minister for Mental Health 

 

Dear Minister Sharpe,

The burning of gas in homes is harming people in NSW and is contributing to catastrophic climate change. As health and community service workers, students and organisations, we urgently request that your government replace household gas with renewable-powered electricity.

Domestic gas use poses a range of direct and indirect risks to health, which many of us are witnessing in the communities we serve:

  • Indoor pollution from gas appliances causes and exacerbates asthma and other illnesses and can even cause death (1).
  • Pollution from gas stoves has been estimated to account for 12% of the childhood asthma burden in Australia (2).
  • A child living in a house with a gas stove faces roughly a 30% increased risk of asthma (3). This is comparable to a child living with household cigarette smoke (4,5).
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning from gas appliances is a well-recognised and preventable cause of hospital attendance and deaths (6,7), including a near-fatal incident involving three residents of Western Sydney in September 2022 (8).
  • Gas flames release benzene, which can cause cancers and therefore should be kept at the lowest level possible indoors (9).
  • The burning of gas is driving dangerous climate change. Climate change is a health emergency that has become all too apparent to NSW residents in recent years due to devastating bushfires, floods and heatwaves, all of which can have significant and potentially life-threatening health impacts (10)

There is no feasible pathway to a carbon-neutral gas network (11), so to reach NSW’s net zero targets, the gas network will have to be shut down by 2050 at the latest. Healthier and more economical electric alternatives for all current domestic uses of gas exist, with a plausible pathway to net zero carbon emissions for the electricity grid. The NSW Government should prioritise the health, climate and economic benefits of an accelerated decommissioning of the reticulated gas distribution network. By way of precedent, Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory, and multiple international jurisdictions are already phasing out gas connections to new homes (12)

At the household level, the energy bill savings from upgrading to heat pump-based heating and induction stoves surpass the initial upgrade costs within a few years (13). This initial cost, however, can be a barrier to low-income households, so to assure energy equity, targeted assistance is important (14). People residing in either public or private rental housing are generally unable to choose whether or not to use indoor gas and therefore need assistance to avoid being left behind with high bills and health impacts as others transition away from gas. Furthermore, households who continue using gas during the transition can decrease exposure to toxins by optimising ventilation, which should be a focus of community education campaigns. 

We, therefore, request that the NSW Government publicly commit to the following:

  • No new gas connections to NSW homes by 2025
  • Means-tested financial assistance for NSW residents to replace gas appliances with electric alternatives, taking advantage of the 2023 Federal budget Household Energy Upgrades Fund (e.g. direct subsidies, rebates and/or no-interest loans). 
  • Abolition of gas disconnection fees by the end of 2025. 
  • A requirement for landlords to undertake safety checks on all gas appliances every 2 years and replace gas appliances that fail after 2025 with energy-efficient electric alternatives.
  • Ending the sale of gas appliances in NSW by the end of 2030.
  • Undertaking public health education on minimising exposure to toxic air pollution in homes still using gas.
  • A commitment to replacing gas with electricity in all public and government buildings, including all public housing and public hospitals.
  • In the interim until all public housing is electrified, establishing a pathway for people living with asthma or other lung conditions in public housing to have gas appliances replaced with electrical alternatives as a priority at the recommendation of their GP, paediatrician or respiratory specialist.

 

We would welcome an opportunity to meet with you to discuss this further.

 

Sincerely,

[signatories]

References:

  1. Ewald, B, Crisp, G & Carey, M 2022, ‘Health risks from indoor gas appliances’, Australian Journal of General Practice, vol. 51, no. 12 https://www1.racgp.org.au/ajgp/2022/december/health-risks-from-indoor-gas-appliances
  2. Knibbs, LD, Woldeyohannes, S, Marks, GB & Cowie, CT 2018, ‘Damp housing, gas stoves, and the burden of childhood asthma in Australia’, Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 208, no. 7, pp299-302, https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2018/208/7/damp-housing-gas-stoves-and-burden-childhood-asthma-australia
  3. Lin, W, Brunekreef, B & Gehring, U 2013, ‘Meta-analysis of the effects of indoor nitrogen dioxide and gas cooking on asthma and wheeze in children’, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp1724–1737, https://academic.oup.com/ije/article/42/6/1724/737113?login=false 
  4. Jayes, L, Haslam, PL, Gratziou, CG, Powell, P, Britton, J, Vardavas, C, Jimenez-Ruiz, C, Leonardi-Bee, J, Dautzenberg, B, Lundbäck, B, Fletcher, M, Turnbull, A, Katsaounou, P, Heederik, D, Smyth, D, Ravara, S, Sculier, J-P, Martin, F & Orive, JIDG 2016, ‘SmokeHaz: systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the effects of smoking on respiratory health’, CHEST, vol. 150, no. 1, pp164–179, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2016.03.060
  5. Vork, KL, Broadwin, RL & Blaisdell, RJ 2007, ‘Developing asthma in childhood from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke: insights from a meta-regression’, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 115, no. 10, pp1394–1400, https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10155
  6. Zorbalar, N, Yesilaras, M & Aksay, E 2014, ‘Carbon monoxide poisoning in patients presenting to the emergency department with a headache in winter months’, Emergency Medicine Journal, vol. 31(e1) pp66–70 https://emj.bmj.com/content/31/e1/e66.short 
  7. Coroners Court of Victoria 2013, Inquest into the death of Tyler Robinson, www.coronerscourt.vic.gov.au/sites/default/files/2018-12/tylerrobinson_203810.pdf
  8. Vidler, A & Meacham, S, 2022 Sydney family lucky to be alive after faulty heater leaks carbon monoxide https://www.9news.com.au/national/carbon-monoxide-poisoning-three-in-hospital-sydney-faulty-heater/4eb00533-684b-46b7-a150-dbe534709ee2
  9. Kashtan, Y. S., Nicholson, M., Finnegan, C., Ouyang, Z., Lebel, E. D., Michanowicz, D. R., ... & Jackson, R. B. (2023). Gas and Propane Combustion from Stoves Emits Benzene and Increases Indoor Air Pollution. Environmental Science & Technology.
  10. Steffen, W, Hughes, L & Perkins, S 2014, Heatwaves: Hotter, longer, more often, Climate Council of Australia, viewed 16 October 2019, https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/resources/heatwaves-report/.
  11. Wood, T., Reeve, A., & Suckling, E. (2023). Getting off gas: why, how, and who should pay? The Grattan Institute Report No. 2023-08 https://grattan.edu.au/report/getting-off-gas/
  12. ACT (Australian Capital Territory) Government 2022, Powering Canberra: our Pathway to Electrification, ACT Government https://www.cmtedd.act.gov.au/open_government/inform/act_government_media_releases/barr/2022/powering-canberra-our-pathway-to-electrification 
  13. Tidemann, C., Bradshaw, S., Rayner, J., & Arndt, D. (2023). Smarter Energy Use: How to cut energy bills and climate harm. The Climate Council https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2023/04/CC_MVSA0353-CC-Report-Two-for-One-Home-Energy-Efficiency_V5.1-FA-Screen-Single.pdf 
  14. Bryant, D, Porter, E, Rama, I & Sullivan, D 2022, Power pain: an investigation of energy stress in Australia https://www.bsl.org.au/research/publications/power-pain/
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Sign the Open Letter

Gas is a harmful, polluting and expensive form of energy, and should be replaced with renewable electricity as soon as possible.

The Victorian Government started this process with a Gas Substitution Roadmap in 2022 but it does not go far or fast enough to protect people’s health. The ACT has already committed to new homes being built gas-free - we want more for Victorians!

If you work or study in health or community services, please sign our open letter calling on the Victorian Government to take actionTogether we’re calling on the Victorian Government to commit to no new gas connections to homes by 2025 and to support vulnerable households to make the transition to renewable electricity.

If you’re a health or community service organisation please email us here: [email protected]

If you don't work or study in health or community services, we'd love you to share this page with your networks.

You can read more about the problem and solution with gas in the homes here and in this fact sheet by Doctors for the Environment Australia.

Organisational Signatories:

 HF logo   CAHA RACGP   afmw-logo-header-1.png     AEA logo   AMSA     

250 signatures

To: the Hon. Lily D’Ambrosio MP, Victorian Minister for Climate Action, Energy and Resources

cc: the Hon. Mary-Anne Thomas MP, Victorian Minister for Health & the Hon. Daniel Andrews MP, Premier of Victoria

Dear Minister D’Ambrosio,

The burning of gas in homes is threatening the health and wellbeing of Victorians and is contributing to catastrophic climate change. As health and community service workers, students and organisations we request that your government replace household gas with renewable-powered electricity urgently.

The Victorian Government’s Gas Substitution Roadmap [1] is a welcome step in the right direction, but currently lacks detail on the necessary timeframe for transition and assistance for Victorians on low incomes. We call on you to address these issues in the 2023 Roadmap update to reduce cost of living pressures and protect Victorians’ health and wellbeing.

Domestic gas use poses a range of direct and indirect risks to health, which many of us are witnessing in the communities we serve:

  • Indoor pollution from gas appliances causes and exacerbates asthma and other illnesses and can even cause death [2].
    • Pollution from gas stoves has been estimated to account for 12% of the childhood asthma burden in Australia [3].
    • A child living in a house with a gas stove faces roughly a 30% increased risk of asthma [4]. This is comparable to a child living with household cigarette smoke [5,6].
    • Carbon monoxide poisoning from gas appliances is a well recognised and preventable cause of emergency department attendances [7] and has caused tragic fatalities [8].
  • Rising gas prices are putting people’s physical and mental health at risk:
    • Many Australians are struggling to pay their energy bills, and this is more common among renters, people with low incomes and people with disabilities or chronic health conditions [9]. Last year Victorian wholesale gas prices more than doubled [10], increasing the risk of energy poverty for Victorians using gas.
    • When people cannot afford to maintain their homes at optimal temperatures they are more prone to both heat and cold-related illnesses, which already kill roughly 10,000 Australians every year [11-13].
    • People who struggle to pay their energy bills can limit their expenditure on food and medicines and can suffer significant mental health impacts from extreme temperatures and financial stress [14,15].
    • Overall, energy poverty is associated with poorer self-reported health in Australia [16].
    • Because electric reverse-cycle heating is cheaper than gas heating [17] and this price difference is projected to increase [18] it is urgent to assist Victorians, and particularly those most vulnerable, to switch from gas to electricity as soon as possible.
  • The burning of gas is driving dangerous climate change. Victoria uses more gas than any other Australian state or territory and gas use accounts for approximately 17% of Victoria's greenhouse gas emissions [1]. Climate change is a health emergency that has become all too apparent to Australians in recent years due to devastating floods, bushfires and other extreme weather events. 

Households must be supported to switch from gas to electricity as soon as possible. Indigenous and culturally and linguistically diverse communities should be actively engaged in this process, and specific requirements must be set for rental properties. As a precedent, the Australian Capital Territory has already phased out gas connections to new homes [19]. We therefore request that you update the Victorian Gas Substitution Roadmap to include:

  1. A commitment to no new gas connections to Victorian homes by 2025,
  2. Means-tested financial assistance (e.g. direct subsidies, rebates and/or no-interest loans) for Victorians to replace their gas heaters, stoves and hot water systems with electric alternatives,
  3. No further gas appliances to be offered through the Victorian Energy Upgrade Program after 2023,
  4. A requirement for landlords to replace any gas appliances that fail after 2023 with energy-efficient electric alternatives,
  5. Abolition of gas disconnection fees by the end of 2023, and
  6. A commitment to replacing gas with electricity in all public housing and all public and government buildings, including proposed public housing such as the Commonwealth Games Village in Morwell.

We would welcome an opportunity to meet with you to discuss this further.

Sincerely,

[signatories]

References:

  1. DELWP (Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning) 2022, Gas Substitution Roadmap, DELWP, Victorian Government, accessed 11 January 2023 via https://www.energy.vic.gov.au/renewable-energy/victorias-gas-substitution-roadmap
  2. Ewald, B, Crisp, G & Carey, M 2022, ‘Health risks from indoor gas appliances’, Australian Journal of General Practice, vol. 51, no. 12, viewed 11 January 2023, https://www1.racgp.org.au/ajgp/2022/december/health-risks-from-indoor-gas-appliances
  3. Knibbs, LD, Woldeyohannes, S, Marks, GB & Cowie, CT 2018, ‘Damp housing, gas stoves, and the burden of childhood asthma in Australia’, Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 208, no. 7, pp299-302, viewed 11 January 2023, https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2018/208/7/damp-housing-gas-stoves-and-burden-childhood-asthma-australia
  4. Lin, W, Brunekreef, B & Gehring, U 2013, ‘Meta-analysis of the effects of indoor nitrogen dioxide and gas cooking on asthma and wheeze in children’, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp1724–1737, https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/ dyt150 
  5. Jayes, L, Haslam, PL, Gratziou, CG, Powell, P, Britton, J, Vardavas, C, Jimenez-Ruiz, C, Leonardi-Bee, J, Dautzenberg, B, Lundbäck, B, Fletcher, M, Turnbull, A, Katsaounou, P, Heederik, D, Smyth, D, Ravara, S, Sculier, J-P, Martin, F & Orive, JIDG 2016, ‘SmokeHaz: systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the effects of smoking on respiratory health’, CHEST, vol. 150, no. 1, pp164–179, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2016.03.060
  6. Vork, KL, Broadwin, RL & Blaisdell, RJ 2007, ‘Developing asthma in childhood from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke: insights from a meta-regression’, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 115, no. 10, pp1394–1400, https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10155
  7. Zorbalar, N, Yesilaras, M & Aksay, E 2014, ‘Carbon monoxide poisoning in patients presenting to the emergency department with a headache in winter months’, Emergency Medicine Journal, vol. 31(e1):e66–70. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2012-201712
  8. Coroners Court of Victoria 2013, Inquest into the death of Tyler Robinson, viewed 11 January 2023 at www.coronerscourt.vic.gov.au/sites/default/files/2018-12/tylerrobinson_203810.pdf
  9. Bryant, D, Porter, E, Rama, I & Sullivan, D 2022, Power pain: an investigation of energy stress in Australia, accessed 11 January 2023 via https://www.bsl.org.au/research/publications/power-pain/
  10. Australian Energy Regulator 2023, Victorian gas market average daily weighted prices by quarter, viewed 30 January 2023 at https://www.aer.gov.au/wholesale-markets/wholesale-statistics/victorian-gas-market-average-daily-weighted-prices-by-quarter
  11. Cheng, J, Xu, Z, Bambrick, H, Su, H, Tong, S & Wenbiao, H 2019, ‘Impacts of health, cold and temperature variability on mortality in Australia, 2000-2009’, Science of the Total Environment, vol. 651, part 2, pp2558-2565, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.10.186
  12. Gasparrini, A, Guo, Y, Hashizume, M, Lavigne, E, Zanobetti, A, Schwartz, J, Tobias, A, Tong, S, Rocklöv, J, Forsberg, B, Leone, M, De Sario, M, Bell, ML, Guo, YL, Wu, C, Kan, H, Yi, S, de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, M, Saldiva, PHN, Honda, Y, Kim, H & Armstrong, B 2015, ‘Mortality risk attributable to high and low ambient temperature: a multicountry observational study’, The Lancet, vol. 386, no. 9991, pp369-375, viewed 11 January 2023 at https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(14)62114-0/fulltext
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